I. kerületi Önkormányzat, Budapest - Magyarország
Budapest 1st District Municipality - Hungary
A helyreállított barlangok hasznosíthatósága, a helyreállítás szempontjai
The Possible Utilization of Restored Caves and the Aspects of Restoration
A Budai Vár alatti mintegy 4 km hosszú barlangrendszer nemcsak természeti értékei miatt különleges, hanem a vár, mint város életében betöltött szerepe miatt is.
Noha a barlangok használata és hasznosítása az őskorig nyúlik vissza azok a középkorban váltak igazán fontossá. A Budai Vár alatti üregek, barlangok puszta létükkel is igen fontos szerepet játszottak a város védelmében.
A budavári barlangok elhelyezkedése a világon egyedülálló: egy ország fővárosának - egy világváros kellős közepén, a város történelmi magja alatt találhatóak. Nagy Labirintus Megközelítése és látogatása könnyű. A független barlangpincékkel viszont nehézségek adódnak.
A kutatások, a feltárt leletek és az, hogy az I. kerületi Önkormányzat immár intézményesen foglalkozik a Budai Vár barlangjaival. 1997. április 16-án nyitotta meg kapuit - története során immár harmadszor-a Várbarlang. Az 1997-es évben a nyolc és fél hónap alatt több mint 18.000 látogatója volt. Nemcsak turisták látogatják a barlangrendszert, volt már itt esküv6, iskolák rendeztek tanulóiknak versenyeket, más rendezvényekkel is lebonyolítottak már a termeikben. A barlang végre méltó hasznosításra került.
The 4 km long cave system below the Buda castle is unique both because of its natural values and its role in the life of the city. During past centuries, the cavities were continuously used by the people living here. The symbiosis of history and natural values is unique.
While the utilization of the cavities dates back to prehistoric times, they became important only in the middle ages. To understand their importance, we must understand the most important facts about city life and its Structure in medieval times. Medieval cities had two important tasks: to protect people from attack by enemies and natural disasters, and to provide proper living conditions. The cavities below the Buda Castle played an important role in these tasks simply by their physical existence.
During attack and fires people sheltered in the caves, protecting their lives and values.
Also, the cavities provided the most important things for survival such as water, while the upper dry parts of the caves were suitable for storing food.
Horizontally the Castle Cave can be divided into two units: the independent cave cellars and the big labyrinth system of about 4 km length. While this last one can be approached from any of the houses above it, the independent cellars are only accessible from certain private houses. This causes problems connected with their utilization, which are almost impossible to solve, as will be discussed later. Introduction and utilization of the cave and cellar system below the Buda Castle as a unique ensemble of historical and natural values.
What determines the reasons for utilization?
The location of the Buda Castle caves is unique by world standards: they are in the middle of a capital a metropolis, located below the historical centre. Their access is easy both from the historic centre and from other parts of the city. A visit to the passages and halls does not require any physical effort, as they Can be visited in normal clothes and shoes. Such cavities in travertine are very rare anywhere in the world.
In addition 10 their natural value, they are also places of historical interest. The cavities played an important role in the life of Buda City. From the middle ages to the middle of this century they were strongly connected with the life of Buda Castle and the people living there. There are a lot of legends and anecdotal descriptions of things which happened there.
Problems of usage
Unfortunalely, there are some restrictions which make utilization difficult. It should be remembered that the major aim of the construction work carried out in the cavities is to make them stronger and more stable, and aspects of utilization are of secondary importance. Luckily these two aspects have been integrated. It means that the final site and shape of a supporting structure might be decided only after months of discussions, in order to retain as large a place as possible for later utilization.
Access to the cavities is a bigger problem. The big labyrinth can be accessed from several buildings, and some parts even have an exit to the side of the Castle Hill, thus providing a connection with areas outside the Castle itself.
The situation with the independent cellars is totally different. The majority of them can be accessed only from houses, so the critical point when planning utilization is where the future entrance should be.
There can be only one of two solutions: either we find a proper technical solution which makes it possible to have an external entrance, or the utilization of the cavity is planned in such a way that it does not disturb the people living in the house.
Economics of usage
This presentation has tried 10 emphasize the technical aspects of cave usage, but economics also has 10 be mentioned. It is very difficult to find a way of utilizing the cavities which fulfill the following criteria: the natural and historical value of the caves is preserved, the continuous supervision of the cavities is made possible, the natural state of the cave is not affected by technical devices and management in a negative way, people living and working there are not disturbed. In addition, any new utilization of a cavity has to make a profit, on top of running costs, since this is what investors want.
Finally, a good example of Buda Castle caves utilization:
The cellar damage prevention program, which started in 1992 produced a lot of new data both about the big labyrinth and the independent cellars. A great number of relics became known some of which deserve a mention.
In the cave cellars, below the infilling debris from the last century, archaeological objects, and remnants from the medieval or Turkish times have been discovered, as well as geological features, which are a valuable source of information 10 experts of different fields.
The results of the survey and the fact that the Municipality of the lst district deals with the Buda Castle caves systematically make it possible to exhibit the unique natural and historical artifacts.
On April 16, 1997 the Buda Castle cave opened its entrance with a high profile performance to the public, for the third time during its existence. In 1997, during eight and half months, more than 18,000 people visited the cave. School groups and tourists regularly visit the cave accompanied by enthusiastic young guides. These young people devote their lives 10 the cave, in their spare time cleaning the cave and repairing any damage. Their biggest work was to clean the "Hall of the Turkish well". In the summer of 1997 the ceiling, sooted by smoke from torches was cleaned by high pressure water jets. After the cleaning a 101 of interesting geological details became visible. In this way not only the hall became lighter and nicer, but it also helped the work of the scientists.
In addition to tourist visits, weddings have been held here, schools have organized different competitions, and halls were hired for special occasions. Finally the cave has gal the worthy usage it deserves.